The ability to be able to measure success within a business is fundamentally dependent on having already established the criteria against which the measure is being made.
In establishing a business case to support the development of a business initiative it is critical that the benefits expected to be realised after execution are fully defined. The quantification of these benefits provides the basis against which the success of the initiative can be assessed.
Similarly when maturing the capabilities within the business, in response to delivering against defined strategy, the only way of really knowing if progress is being made is through having a quantitative understanding of the capabilities before any change was invoked.
Establishing a measurement baseline, then continuously assessing how it alters as change is implemented, provides at least one dimension of measuring the success of a business initiative.